The Russian education system provides for postgraduate programs. What is their specificity? What does postgraduate study give?
We can consider this issue in the following aspects:
Let's start with the first item.
Features of postgraduate studies as a form of education
It will be useful to study this aspect in terms of:
- general characteristics of postgraduate studies as a form of education;
- the content of the educational process within the framework of the relevant educational programs.
General characteristics of postgraduate studies
Postgraduate studies are a form of education that involves a person taking intensive, intensive courses in special units of universities or research organizations. The ultimate goal of studying in such structures is to obtain a Ph. D. degree. A person who has it can be considered a highly qualified teacher and, at the same time, a scientist.
Admission to graduate school is possible for holders of:
- diplomas of graduation from a university in a 5-year program ("specialty");
- diplomas of graduation from the university in the master's program.
Admission to graduate school, as in the case of other university courses, involves passing exams. In some cases, an interview with the future supervisor is also required.
Almost all postgraduate programs include teaching practice - about 100 hours, and this is their feature. The fact is that a candidate of sciences should not only be a bearer of knowledge, but also be able to transfer it to other people.
The duration of postgraduate studies, as a rule, is 3 years (full-time), 4 years (part-time). At the end of the training programs, a person must pass exams for a candidate's minimum. If he successfully does this, he will be eligible to defend his dissertation in order to obtain an appropriate scientific degree.
A postgraduate graduate can subsequently go to study for a doctorate - the next, highest ranked course of study and qualification training in Russia.
Let us now investigate what is the specificity of passing the studies within the framework of the programs under consideration.
The learning process in graduate school is somewhat similar to what characterizes the passage of courses at the specialist, bachelor's or master's level: the student also attends lectures, visits libraries.
At the same time, a number of distinctive features are characteristic of the corresponding educational process. One of those we noted above is compulsory teaching. It can also be included in undergraduate, graduate and specialist programs, but the number of hours in this case is usually much lower (if we are not talking about pedagogical faculties).
Postgraduates, as a rule, more intensively than students learn foreign languages and use them in practice - through writing publications, participating in conferences. Actually, already upon admission to graduate school, in most cases, it is compulsory to take a foreign language.
A student must write at least 10 articles in journals during the course of the relevant program, provided that at least 3 of them will be published in publications accredited by the All-Russian Attestation Commission (VAK).
While the student is writing and defending his thesis, the graduate student does the same with his Ph. D. thesis. Usually this is a much larger document - about 120 pages. As in the case of a diploma, a Ph. D. thesis must be supplemented with an author's abstract.
Like students, graduate students receive a scholarship - if, of course, they are studying in a full-time program at the expense of the state. Significant preferences are also provided for correspondence students.
So, in accordance with the provisions of Article 173.1 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, they have the right:
- to go on additional leave while maintaining the average earnings for 30 days annually;
- receive compensation for travel from the place of work to the university and back from the employer;
- take an extra day off, which will be paid for 50% of daily earnings;
- Take advantage of the opportunity provided by the employer to take 2 unpaid days off in the final year of the program.
Moreover, in accordance with the provisions of the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 409 of May 5, 2014, a graduate student has the right to go on additional leave of 3 months for the period of preparation for the defense of a Ph. D. thesis.
Benefits of graduate school
They can be traced in the following key points:
- the emergence of career prospects;
- deferral from the army (of course, mainly in cases where a person is not close to military service).
The main goal with which people go to graduate school is to improve their own qualifications, mastering new knowledge and skills. At the same time, for many students, the key incentive is to obtain the title of candidate of sciences. The fact is that such a status predetermines significant career prospects for its owner. But what does postgraduate study give in employment in practice?
A candidate of sciences is, first of all, a teacher desired by many educational institutions. Above, we noted that special attention is paid to training a person in this area in graduate school. Of course, there is an additional significant factor in the interest of an educational institution in the services of a candidate of sciences - a high level of his knowledge.
An employer's preferential treatment of a graduate student may well be supported by salary or opportunities for rapid career advancement.
If a person who has the status of a candidate of sciences will find a job not in a university, but, say, in a commercial consulting firm, then even in this case his academic degree can play a positive role. This may be due to two factors. First, the professional competence of a graduate student, as a rule, is assessed by employers as higher than that of a candidate who does not have the corresponding status. Secondly, the presence of people with a scientific degree in the organization's staff is often recognized by the market (competitors, partners, investors, clients) as one of the indicators of the firm's stability, its prestige, and therefore good prospects for its further growth.
Postponement from the army
Does postgraduate study provide a postponement from the army? Yes, if we are talking about full-time studies. For many citizens, this becomes an additional factor in the attractiveness of admission to graduate school. For the entire period of training of a conscript, the military registration and enlistment office is not entitled to send him summons. Moreover, a person who has successfully completed his postgraduate studies and became a candidate of sciences cannot subsequently be enlisted in the army of the Russian Federation by way of conscription..