What did Peter I do for Russia?.

As you know, Peter I opened a window to Europe, forced the boyars to shave their beards and enlightened the dark Russian people. This emperor was immensely respected during the Soviet period, but in recent history his role in the life of the country is very ambiguous; Klyuchevsky did not attribute to him any significant achievements, while Soloviev considered all the changes in the life of the country to be Peter's personal merit. A relatively objective assessment of what Peter I did for Russia can be based on his completed reforms.

  • Under Peter I, the Russian kingdom became the Russian Empire as a result of the victory in the Northern War and gaining access to the Baltic Sea. Since that time (1721), the country has been actively involved in foreign policy games.
  • The Byzantine chronology was replaced by the era "from the Nativity of Christ", the New Year began to be celebrated on January 1.
  • The Conservative Boyar Duma was replaced by the Governing Senate, to which the collegiums (ministries) were subordinate, the entire document flow was standardized, the office work was brought to a single scheme.
  • The fiscal department was called upon to control the activities of the bureaucratic apparatus.
  • The territory of the country was divided into 8 provinces, in each of which a local vertical of power was created, and then each province - into 50 provinces.
  • The country's regular army was replenished first by foreign officers, and then by Russian nobles - graduates of the navigation, engineering and artillery schools. A powerful military fleet was created, the Naval Academy was opened.
  • The Church hierarchy was transferred to the full subordination of the Senate, instead of the Patriarch, the Holy Synod was in charge of the management of the church vertical, which swore allegiance to the emperor.
  • The land and peasants assigned to the estate became the full property of the nobles and landowners, the free peasants became the property of the state.
  • Primary education became compulsory for all children of the boyars.
  • All representatives of the nobility were obliged to carry out public service.
  • The "Table of Ranks" appeared, allowing to build a career regardless of class origin: an official who reached the 8th grade could receive personal nobility.
  • Per capita taxes began to be levied instead of household taxes; for the first time, a capitation census of the population was carried out.
  • The penny became the main currency.
  • Petersburg was built (founded in 1703).
  • 233 industrial plants were built.