A well is a special device in the soil with reinforced walls. Such a structure can be used for both production and water drainage. In the first case, a deepening is made to the level of an underwater source, while the water supply does not depend on utilities and the state of pipelines. For a farmstead, this is the only option that guarantees uninterrupted watering of the beds on hot summer days. The arrangement of the pit can be carried out manually or using special equipment. This article will look at how to make a well for drinking water, as well as for sewerage.
Choosing a location
In fact, there are no special problems with arranging a pit for a sewage system: we choose the lowest corner of the site and get to work. But to ensure the supply of drinking water, you need to prepare more thoroughly. Groundwater is divided into three types:
Verkhovodkalies at a shallow depth from the surface, its volume depends on the amount of precipitation. This water is not suitable for cooking and drinking, as it cannot be properly filtered. Because of this, the well is usually isolated in order to avoid the ingress of contaminated impurities from this layer.
Ground watersare located deeper than the upper waters, their supply does not depend on external factors. To get to the source, you need to make a well. Groundwater often comes to the surface in the form of springs and in most cases has a pleasant taste and mirror-like clarity.
Artesian watersare at great depths. To use them, it is necessary to mount a well and install special equipment. Thanks to the waterproof layers, the liquid is always under pressure.
There are two ways to determine the location of the source on the site: by drilling test wells or by collecting information. The first is more expensive, but more effective and allows you to save time as much as possible. For the second option, no financial investment is required. If you decide to make a well in the country with minimal costs, you need to talk with neighbors who already have one. Find out the depth of structures, quantity and quality of water. If there are wells nearby, it is highly likely that the aquifer also passes under your site. You can contact hydrologists - they should have information about the occurrence of aquifers in the area of interest to you. When choosing a direct place for a well, you need to be guided by the rules of sanitary standards. Do not dig near baths, cesspools and other sources of pollution, the minimum distance from which should be 25 meters.
The headof the well is the visible part, which is located above the ground level. The water is then taken for drinking analysis.
This procedure will protect the well from overhead water. The gap between the tunnel wall and the shaft column is covered with gravel. The last two meters must be tamped with clay. A blind area is arranged on top - a concrete path around the structure, which is designed to drain rainwater from the trunk.
Erection of the head
As a rule, the same concrete rings are used for the surface part as for the shaft. The optimum height is 80 cm. In this case, 20 cm should be in the ground. In a circle, the entire structure is revetted with wooden beams or boards. A cover or gate is installed to protect against dust. A roof is erected from above with fairly large plumb lines. A gate is installed to lift a bucket of water. It is made from solid logs. Two holes are drilled on the sides in the center, an axis with a handle is inserted into them. This element is mounted above the shaft to two lateral vertical beams. A chain with a bucket is attached to it.
Liquid disposal well
In this section, we will talk about how to properly make a sewer well. The principle of its construction is very similar to the technology described above. However, there are a number of design differences and features. The arrangement of this structure should be carried out at the lowest point of the site, as far as possible from drinking sources, at least 25 meters. Concrete rings, metal or plastic barrels, characterized by a long service life, can be used as materials for creating a tank. The place of digging must be chosen so that a sewer truck can easily drive up to the well.
If concrete rings are used to construct the tank, the process is the same as described above. The only exception is the insulation between the shaft elements. In this case, the joints are lubricated with cement mortar.
The depth of the well depends on the estimated volume of waste and can be from 2 to 5 meters. A round concrete slab with an opening for a sewer hatch is installed on top. Then the piping system from home is connected. The section of the pipe from the building to the tank must be strictly flat, without bends and with a slight slope towards the well.
When using other materials, the principle of operation remains the same. First, a hole is dug to fit the size of the tank. Then the structure is installed, the pipe is brought in and the system is insulated..