The difference between truth and error.

The search for truth inevitably leads to delusion. Any definition of this complex concept reflects only some part of it, more or less corresponding to a person's ideas about the truth and falsity of judgments. Our entire intellectual and spiritual life consists of a search for truth, but a belief, opinion, or wise statement, taken as an absolute, becomes a delusion. In order not to close the circle, one must have a clear idea of ​​what truth is and how it differs from delusion.


Truth in its philosophical meaning is interpreted as an adequate reflection of objective reality in the subjective human consciousness. The classical concept of truth was formulated by Aristotle as the correspondence of knowledge and objectively existing reality. This universal formula is applicable to any kind of human mental activity and is considered the basis of materialistic ideas about the knowability of the world.

Delusion - an erroneous belief, judgment or other type of intellectual awareness of reality, containing limited knowledge or containing their inconsistency with the objective state of affairs.


Misconception is always a mistake. It is common for people to make mistakes in self-esteem, to accept false values ​​as a moral standard, to judge others incorrectly, to share erroneous views. The peculiarity of the delusion is that for some time it seems to be the truth of life, the truth and is not questioned, and even more so - analysis.

Personal delusions give rise to an internal conflict that requires a revision of life positions. Scientific delusions are refuted by the proof of new theories with repeated confirmation of their correctness by fundamental research and practical experiments.

Truth in the classical sense differs from delusion in that its criterion is the assessment of objective reality as a changing, dynamic whole. The relativity of truth reflects a certain level of human knowledge about the nature of phenomena and the essence of life, existing only within the limits of specific ideas.

Relative truth is tantamount to recognizing the knowability of the world. It exists as an abstract concept that does not require immediate confirmation, but implies the variability of the very content of truth in the dialectical development of human thinking.

Truth is logical and consistent. If there is no logic in a judgment, it loses clarity, becomes erroneous and leads to delusion. In this case, truth as an evaluative category loses all meaning.

Religious dogmas cannot be considered true. The basis of any religion is not empirical knowledge, but unconditional faith that does not need proof from the standpoint of reliability. Theosophists proclaim God to be the absolute truth, endowing the concept of truth with a spiritual content that can only be confirmed by sensory and not intellectual experience.


  1. Delusion contains knowledge that does not correspond to objective reality. Truth adequately reflects in consciousness the essence of the phenomena of the surrounding world.
  2. Misconception arises from erroneous judgments. Truth is strictly logical and confirmed by intellectual experience.
  3. Delusion requires refutation. It is impossible to refute the truth.
  4. Delusion can be of a religious nature. The truthfulness of judgments does not coincide with religious beliefs.
  5. Delusion distorts reality and leads to new delusions. Truth clarifies consciousness and improves human knowledge.