Both the Bible and the Koran are holy books: the Bible is for Christians, the Koran is for Muslims. Christianity and Islam are considered world religions: they are common on all (except Antarctica) continents among the most diverse peoples. Both Christianity and Islam belong to the Abrahamic religions, that is, to a religious tradition dating back to the patriarch of the ancient Semites, Abraham, who lived about four thousand years ago. It will seem to an inexperienced person that as a result of this, the sacred books of the religions mentioned should have much in common, but is this really so? Let's consider in more detail how the Bible differs from the Koran.
The origin of the sacred books
Islam is the youngest of the world's religions, it was formed in the first half of the 7th century AD. The Koran (which in Arabic means "reading"), according to Muslim beliefs, was transmitted to the Prophet Muhammad in parts for 23 years by the angel Jabrail (in the Christian tradition - Gabriel). According to legend, the angel Jabrail transmitted the first sura (chapter) of the Koran on the Night of Destiny (Night of al-Qadr - the 27th of the month of Ramadan) in 610 AD. Since then, Muslims have a holiday on this date.
The difference between the Bible and the Koran is that the history of its writing is much more complicated and extended in time. The Bible (in Greek - "book") consists of the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is a common sacred book for Christians and Jews, and it was written over a very long period - from the 13th to the 1st century BC. The New Testament, which tells about the life and deeds of Jesus Christ and his disciples, was created in the second half of the 1st century AD. That is, the total time of writing the Bible is about 14 centuries.
Acquaintance with Christianity and Judaism could not but affect the worldview of the founder of Islam, Muhammad. The Qur'an recognizes the biblical prophets, only calls them with Arabicized names. So, Moses became Musa, Noah - Nuh, Abraham - Ibrahim. Denying Jesus to be recognized as the son of God, Muslims nevertheless consider him one of the greatest prophets - the nabi. In the Muslim tradition, his name sounds like Isa ibn Maryam al-Masih.
The essence of the Quran is a declaration of the basic ideas and principles of Islam. It consists of 114 chapters called suras. Their content is diverse: a description of real as well as fictional events and an exposition of the foundations of Sharia - Muslim law. The size of the suras is also varied: some are extensive narratives, others consist of several lines. The first surah - al-Fatiha (Opening) - represents seven verses (ayats) and is the most common prayer, like the "Our Father" among Christians.
The structure of the Bible is much more complex. The first part, the Old Testament, is the legendary description of the creation of the world and the history of the Jewish people before the restoration of the Second Jerusalem Temple. It consists of three parts - "Pentateuch", "Prophets", "Scriptures". The New Testament, which is the second part of the Bible, consists of several dozen scriptures, of which four are the biographies of Jesus Christ in different editions, as well as the letters of the apostles to various historical figures of that era and entire nations and the Acts of the Holy Apostles. The New Testament ends with the famous Apocalypse, or the Revelations of John the Theologian, which tells of the coming end of the world.
As you can see, the sacred books of Christianity and Islam have little in common. Although Islam is the religion of the Abrahamic tradition, the Qur'an lays the foundations for a new religious ethics that is very different from the Christian one. The table below summarizes what is the difference between the Bible and the Quran.
|Time of writing||13th century BC - 1st century AD||The first third of the 7th century AD|
|Contents||The legendary history of the Jewish people, the life of Jesus Christ, the acts of the Apostles, the Apocalypse||The main principles of Islam, partially - information about real or fictional events|