The difference between Sharikov and Shvonder, Preobrazhensky, Bormenthal.

The story of Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov "Heart of a Dog" was written in 1925, and was first published only in 1968, and even then in the far abroad. Domestic readers saw it only in 1987. In such a short time (from the first edition to the present day), the text has taken root in quotations (in fairness, it is worth noting that in many respects the film by Vladimir Bortko should be thanked for this). The image of Polygraph Poligrafovich contained all the shortcomings of the representatives of the lower social class, and in his relationships with those around him, the author demonstrated the fate of his contemporary Russia (then, of course, the Soviet Union). How does Sharikov differ from Shvonder, Preobrazhensky and Bormental and why did his name manage to become a household name?

  1. Comparison
  2. Table

Let us recall the plot of the story: Professor Preobrazhensky, as part of an experiment to “improve the human breed”, transplants the pituitary gland and testes of the deceased alcoholic Klim Chugunkin with the help of Bormental's assistant Sharik. As a result of a unique operation, the animal evolves in a few days into a disgusting creature that has inherited some of the dog's habits, and the character and mentality of a donor person. The head of the house administration Shvonder is trying to educate a representative of the proletariat from a new tenant, which brings monstrous results: the former dog becomes a citizen Sharikov Polygraph Poligrafovich and demands that his rights be respected as he represents them. As a result, after the appearance of a tangible threat from his brainchild, Preobrazhensky reverses the experiment and brings an ordinary dog ​​back to life.


Obviously, one of the main differences between Sharikov and the rest of the characters is his artificial origin. It appeared as a result of an experiment, but as a result of an experiment it was destroyed (after all, a dog cannot be considered a person). This creature lives by instincts and habits inherited from two donors, and has no experience of its own.

It is interesting to consider what is the difference between Sharikov and Shvonder. They are considered to be negative characters and opposed to positive ones - Bormental and Preobrazhensky. However, in reality, the head of house management, despite the attitude of the professor, is just a means to strengthen the same monsters in society as the newly-minted citizen. Shvonder is the personification of the new government, arrogant and incompetent, and they have the same function - to empower them. Whom? Such are the ball, which have arisen out of nowhere and can only destroy.

Shvonder and Sharikov

Professor Preobrazhensky resigns himself to the presence of Shvonder, although he successfully confronts him on the issue of the rooms of the apartment. The position of an intellectual is "do what you want, just do not interfere with work." Of course, he does not approve of the new order, notices the devastation and its sources, but he is not afraid and is not too worried, despite the stolen galoshes. Sharikov inspires him with fear, and far from being irrational. In this image, a new full-fledged citizen of a young country is seen - a lumpen, living by instincts, uneducated, aggressive, not feeling and bearing no responsibility, in a word - “boor and pig”.

Comrades from the house management

Unlike Sharikov, Shvonder and his colleagues are ideological people, although their ideas are rather pitiful. They act according to the letter of the new laws and in the spirit of the new time, they do not call for physical violence and prefer agitation. Sharikov, on the other hand, recognizes only the effect of force, moreover directed mutually: a dog's nature, when threatened by Bormental, "tucks his tail", but finds an opportunity to surreptitiously "gnaw galoshes" to the owners. For him, communist ideas are a means of obtaining material wealth and nothing more.

Preobrazhensky and Sharikov

What is the difference between Sharikov and Preobrazhensky and Bormental? The latter are highly educated, intelligent, cultured people, specialists in their field. The hybrid that emerged as a result of the experiment is a slacker who "picked up" newspaper headlines and clichés, capable only of destroying cats, and even then thanks to the canine instincts that have not yet been outlived. Scientists are trying not to educate, but to train their creation, explaining to him the elementary rules of behavior. However, this does not help Sharikov to become more cultured: he even chooses plebeian entertainment and food.

Preobrazhensky and Bormental

We see how the power of professional authority and honest money (Preobrazhensky) gives way and completely yields to the power of denunciation and revolver (Sharikov). The surgeon realizes that he is losing his influence, and he has to resort to violence and even symbolic murder, a crime, although Chugunkin has long been dead, and Sharik the dog remains alive and even happy.

In addition to the obvious belonging to different social groups and origin (Polygraph Poligrafovich is still a former dog), the difference between these images is manifested in the much less caricature and collective nature of Preobrazhensky and Bormental. It is believed that the prototypes of Philip Philipovich were several prominent scientists of the time, including Ivan Pavlov. Sharikov, however, cannot have a prototype - this is the image of a hero of the new era, which Bulgakov only saw. Of course, there have been marginals at all times, but marginals with power and weapons are a sign of Russia, in which the Shvonders defeated the Preobrazhenskys.


Sharikov Shvonder Preobrazhensky (and Bormental)
OriginAn artificially created hybrid of a dog and a manManHuman
Social groupLumpen who received civil rightsA new type of proletarian public officialScientist, intellectual
Personal characteristics“Ham and pig”“Fool”“Genius” admitting mistakes
Social characteristicsAggression and meannessIdeology, bureaucracyHigh level of culture
Method of persuasionViolenceAgitationEducation