As a rule, researchers and teachers of universities have an academic degree and academic title. What is the specificity of these regalia?
What is an academic degree?
Under an academic degree it is customary to understand the qualification level of a representative of the scientific field, assigned to him after completing training in special programs. Two academic degrees have now been established in Russia - a candidate of sciences and a doctor of sciences.
The first is assigned to a person who successfully completed his postgraduate studies and defended his Ph. D. thesis. The degree of Doctor of Science is awarded to a scientist who is studying in doctoral studies, defends a doctoral dissertation, and also receives the approval of the Council of the Higher Attestation Commission.
Only candidates of sciences can receive a doctorate degree. At the same time, the specialization in which a person was trained in graduate school often does not coincide with the one for which he intends to study in doctoral studies. For example, a Ph. D. in economics may well become a Ph. D. in physics.
What is an academic title?
Under academic title it is customary to understand the level of the position of a representative of the scientific sphere, assigned to him in the process of labor activity in a university or scientific institution. There are two academic titles in Russia - associate professor and professor.
An important nuance - a person can be an associate professor or professor not because he has an appropriate academic title, but because of his position. In turn, a person who has a documented title of associate professor or professor may not hold the relevant positions in the university.
The title of associate professor (if we talk about its official assignment), a scientist can receive for success in research or pedagogical work. The title of professor can be awarded to an employee of the university for success in pedagogical work, as well as in the preparation of graduate students.
The title of associate professor and professor is confirmed by a special certificate. In practice, a scientist can most often become a professor only if he has work experience as an associate professor.
The main difference between an academic degree and an academic title is that a person receives the first regalia according to the results of training in special programs - in graduate school or doctoral studies, the second - in the process of working at a university or scientific institution.
In this case, both concepts in practice are closely related: associate professors, as a rule, become scientists with a candidate's degree, professors - doctors of sciences. Although, if a person achieves outstanding achievements in science, he can get an academic title without a corresponding degree. But this is a rather rare case.
Having determined what is the difference between an academic degree and an academic title, we will fix the main conclusions in the table.
|Academic degree||Academic title|
|What do they have in common?|
|An academic title is given, as a rule, only to those representatives of science who have a scientific degree (candidates become associate professors, doctors - professors)|
|What is the difference between them?|
|Submitted by the degrees of candidate and doctor of sciences||Submitted by the titles of associate professor and professor|
|A prerequisite for the award of a scientific degree is training in special programs - in graduate school (to obtain a candidate of science degree), in doctoral studies (to obtain a doctorate degree)||The main condition for awarding a scientific title is the implementation of labor activity in a university or scientific institution|