The topic of creating a family estate has become relevant again today. People are given the opportunity to have their own hectare of land with their own forest, pond, agricultural land. The idea of setting up the estate is not innovative. Since the time of Ancient Rus, it has been possible to obtain an allotment of land, called a patrimony or an estate.
The root of the word "patrimony" is "fatherland", that is, it is the land passed from father to son. The fiefdom included
- arable land
- peasants living on these lands.
The estate is a fairly large feudal possession, most of the area of which was occupied by lordly lands cultivated by serfs.
Methods of acquisition
State and military officials were allotted land - an estate. Moreover, when the service to the king was terminated, the estate was confiscated. Also, the reason for the deprivation of the owner of the local lands could be their desolation and insufficient care.
Fiefdoms could be acquired in three ways: ancestral inheritance, gift for service, ransom. The owners increased the size of the estates through the purchase, donation, and seizure of communal peasant lands.
History of origin
Estates appeared in the 10th century, and by the 13-15th centuries this type of land ownership became the most popular.
The appearance of the first estates dates back to the 15th century. However, even in the 13th century, some princes awarded palace or military servants with land allotments, subject to the performance of the service.
Forms of ownership
Fiefdoms were inherited by boyars and princes and could be sold, mortgaged or donated.
The estate was presented to nobles or boyar children and was not personal property. And, accordingly, any manipulation with him was prohibited. At the same time, like the owners of estates, the landowners had the right to the peasants belonging to these lands, and collected taxes from them. And from the end of the 16th century, a new law was introduced, according to which the estate could be inherited, but the new owner had to also serve the state, like the previous one. In the 18th century, the rights of the owners of estates and estates were equalized and a new type of property was created - the estate.
- A fiefdom is an earlier form of ownership than an estate.
- A patrimony was a personal property with the right to sell, pledge, donate and inherit. The estate is state property issued for the duration of the service.
- By the 18th century, the owners of estates and estates became equal in rights.