In Russian, the case forms of the noun "presence" with the endings -и, -е are used as equal, therefore, the spelling "in the presence" and "in the presence" is considered correct in both cases, although it is fundamentally different depending on from case.
The choice of the ending -i or -e in the noun “presence” should be correlated with the semantic content of the sentence in which the accusative or prepositional form of this noun is required.
In stable combinations with the verbs “to have”, “to be” it is used in the prepositional case: “to have available”; "to be available".
According to the rules existing in Russian grammar, nouns that have the vowel “and” in the initial form before the case ending, in the prepositional case are written with the ending –и.
Nominative : geneandth litandth knownande talandI haveandf
Prepositional : o geneuio lituiin knowledgeandon talandin the presence ofand
Since the stress in nouns like “knowledge”, “doubt”, “ skill "," presence "falls on the root vowel, their pronunciation levels the sound difference between -e / -and at the end of the word. It is difficult to determine by ear what kind of ending is present in these words. To avoid a mistake, you need to remember: the accusative case of nouns ending in –я is the same as the nominative case.
Nominative : (who? What?) Knownnotdoubtfulnotsmartnotpresentno
Accusative : (who? what?) knownnodoubtfulnoclevernopresenceno
In the accusative case, the noun “presence” with the preposition “in” is used very rarely: as a rule, only in templates used in business style. For example:
The presence ofindexed units of household appliances includes 5 vacuum cleaners and fans.
Much more often in written and oral speech, the combination "in the presence" is used as a form of the prepositional case with the preposition "in", which serves to link the control between the verb and the noun "presence":
To carry out an experiment, it is necessaryto have availablereagents and equipment. (available - Proposal)
Pharmacyhas in stocka complete list of medicines intended for emergency medical care. (available - Proposal)
So, the difference between the endings -е / -и in the combinations "available" - "available" depends on the case form of the noun: in the prepositional case, the word is written with –I, in the accusative - with –e; there are no other options.
TheDifference.ru determined that the difference between the combinations "in stock" and "in stock" is as follows:
- "In stock" - this is the prepositional case of the noun presence with the preposition "in", which is formed with the help of the ending -i. The accusative ending of this noun is written with the letter -e.
- The prepositional case of a noun with the preposition “available” is formed according to the type of nouns ending in –y, ––, ––. The accusative case "in the presence" coincides with the nominative case.
- The “available” form is widely used in speech and writing. The combination “in stock” is rarely used due to its semantic limitation.