How to write a discourse essay.

Of all the genres of school writing: storytelling, description, reasoning, the last is the most difficult. Firstly, because it requires from the writer not only the ability to competently express their thoughts, but also the presence of their own position, the ability to substantiate it. Secondly, because it assumes knowledge of the factual material used as arguments. The question of how to write an essay-reasoning is one of the key in preparing for the exam.

The structure of the essay-reasoning

The structure of the essay-reasoning is as follows:

  • An introduction containing a thesis is a statement that requires proof.
  • Arguments: at least 2-3 proofs of the thoughts stated in the thesis.
  • Conclusion, which finally confirms the thesis.

The volume of the essay is calculated by the formula:

Introduction Conclusion = 1/3 of the volume of the essay

In other words, if the essay is three pages long, then the total volume of the introduction and conclusion should not exceed one page.

Each part of the essay-reasoning must begin with a red line.

How to write an introduction

The introduction of an essay-reasoning should lead the reader to the disclosure of a topic, which, as a rule, is formulated in the form of a question or contains a quotation. For example:

  • Katerina Kabanova - "a ray of light" or a victim of the "dark kingdom"?
  • Modern Raskolnikovs - who are they?
  • The problem of finding happiness in Nekrasov's poem "Who lives well in Russia."

All these topics presuppose the reader's reflections on the work of classical Russian literature, therefore, in the introduction it is important to show what caused the interest in this particular topic, its polemical nature, which presupposes the presence of several points of view. The main thesis is formulated, which will be revealed in the essay.

An example of an introduction to the topic “Modern Raskolnikovs - who are they?”:

“F. M. Dostoevsky finished his novel "Crime and Punishment" in 1866, but to this day it is read all over the world. What is the reason for the popularity of the work? Dostoevsky's deep psychologism, his talent for filigree portraying the darkest corners of the human soul? Or the brilliantly shown work of the investigator Porfiry Petrovich? Or a growing interest in Russian culture?

First of all, readers are interested in the main character of the work - the author of the theory of "strong personality" Rodion Raskolnikov. It seems to me that this character cannot leave anyone indifferent, because the criminal theory he invented, dividing the world into the powerless and those who are allowed everything, continues to exist in the minds of modern schismatics. Only if in the image of Raskolnikov Dostoevsky reveals a moral and psychological problem (the hero is broken spiritually and physically), then modern Raskolnikovs are quite safe, but for a number of reasons they consider themselves entitled to judge and condemn entire nations to death. "


So, the introduction is written, the thesis is indicated, but how to write an essay-reasoning without arguments? After all, it is in them that your point of view is confirmed, the problematic of the topic deepens.

What arguments can be given in this topic?

Arguments Examples
Evil often exists under the guise of good intentions
  • Raskolnikov allows himself to kill an old woman-pawnbroker, who, in his opinion, personifies the injustice of the world, where there are so many unfortunate people: Marmeladovs, sister Dunya, mother.
  • So the modern schismatics, proclaiming slogans of justice, and declaring the fight against evil as their main goal, destroy themselves and the world around them, without making anyone happier
Money obtained by blood cannot bring happiness
  • Having dealt with the old woman, the hero also kills the innocent Lizaveta, who, moreover, was pregnant, that is, instead of one malicious old woman, he kills two more life.
  • How many examples we see today of how great are the "accidental" victims of modern schismatics
XX and XXI centuries showed how dangerous theories are, dividing people into "trembling creatures" and "those who have the right"
  • The 1917 revolution in Russia.
  • Massacre of the Romanov family.
  • The Great Patriotic War.
  • Events in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Ukraine
Inhuman theory destroys the soul of the person who created it
  • “I killed myself, not the old woman,” says Raskolnikov. Though not for long, under the influence of Sonya and conversations with Porfiry Petrovich, the hero comes to repentance.
  • Modern Raskolnikovs have learned to drown out the voice of conscience, to close their eyes to the "side effects" of their theories. They have invented double standards that allow them to always find an excuse, even the most absurd.
  • When asking Raskolnikov about whether he believes in God and the resurrection of Lazarus, Porfiry Petrovich meant that only God has the right to take someone's life, because only he can resurrect.
From the sin of murder, from crime and self-destruction, a person can be saved only by sincere faith and love
  • Raskolnikov is saved by Sonya, sharing with him the burdens of repentance and hard labor. With her attitude, she shows him that even a fallen one can be saved if you treat him like a human.
  • Modern schismatics also have a chance to change their worldview, but they replace eternal values ​​with momentary ones, hypocritically justifying their actions with the ideals of goodness and justice

The arguments should be clearly connected with each other: Raskolnikov in the novel is modern schismatics.

If there are words in the text that you are not sure of spelling, it is better to replace them with synonyms.

In an essay-reasoning, as a rule, many introductory words and expressions are used. They must be separated by commas.

Repetitions are an unpleasant defect in the composition. They are especially noticeable when you read the text out loud. Check yourself if the essay was asked to you at home. In other cases, you will have to rely on attentiveness.