Speech is a complex concept. It consists of sentences, sentences - from words, words - from syllables, syllables - from sounds. The absence of any sounds or their incorrect pronunciation can not only negatively affect the formation of speech, but also entail a delay in the development of the child.
- Hardest letter
- Exercise "Horse"
- Exercise "Angry turkey "
- Exercise" Jump-jump "
- Exercise" Air Race "
- Exercise “Delicious pancake”
- Exercise “Hide and Seek”
- Exercise for setting the sound
- Exercise “ Drummer Hare ”
- Exercise“ Ratchet ”
- Exercise“ Motor ”
- Sound Automation
- Words and Phrases
- Tongue twisters
- Poems and songs
The most difficult letter
Children master sounds gradually, from simple vowels "a", "o", "y" at the age several months to complex consonants "l" and "r" in 5-6 years. The letter P and its sounds "p" and "pb" are some of the most difficult to pronounce. The child is given 6 years to master them. If the baby cannot beat tricky sounds by the age of 6, then the parents should seriously think about how to teach the child to say the letter R.
First of all, it is necessary to contact a speech therapist. He must:
- Diagnose and identify problems. A child may not use both sounds "p" and "pb" or one of them, pronounce them partially, for example, only in the middle of a word, replace with other sounds, most often the sound "l", or pronounce them incorrectly, rolling or gutturally. During the examination, the speech therapist can reveal that the child has problems not only with the sounds "p" and "p", but also with others. In this case, it is necessary to put the speech from simple to complex. Usually, sounds are taught in the order in which the baby had to master them on his own. In this case, the letter P is left for last.
- Determine the causes of the defect. Most often this is a weak articulation apparatus and improper breathing when pronouncing sounds. However, there may be more serious reasons that require advice and treatment from other specialists, such as malocclusion, neurological disorders, mental retardation.
- Prescribe treatment. If the child does not have serious diseases that impede the development of speech and require additional treatment, then the child just needs to be helped to master complex sounds. First of all, general articulatory gymnastics is needed, which strengthens the muscles of the speech apparatus. In the second - exercises for setting a specific sound. The third is audio automation.
It is advisable that a speech therapist conducts sound training.
The exercise resembles jumping on a trampoline. It is necessary to accurately touch the tongue to the alveoli - the tubercles located next to the upper front teeth - fix it for a few seconds and return it back. During "jumping" the tongue should touch the alveoli, not the teeth.
Explaining to a child how to do this exercise correctly is not easy. To simplify the task, you can let the baby find and touch the bumps with his own finger; put a mirror so that the child can follow the task; come up with a funny tale about the jumping tongue.
Exercise "Air Race"
You need to smile broadly, press the tip of the tongue to the alveoli behind the upper front teeth and blow hard. As a result, the tongue should tremble and a dull sound "tr-rr" should be produced. If a hiss appears, it means that the exercise was performed incorrectly, the tongue is out of place.
In order to interest the child, it is better to blow not just like that, but on a piece of paper, a feather. You can arrange air races, whose feather will fly farther, who will blow harder.
The sound "tr-rr" in a child will not work right away. To begin with, it is enough to teach the baby to blow strongly and correctly. Then make the tip of your tongue tremble.
Exercise "Delicious pancake"
It is necessary to put the tongue on the lower lip and fix for a few seconds. It should be wide, relaxed, like a pancake on a plate.
Performing such an exercise is difficult the first time. It is easier for a child to put the tongue on the lower lip and press it with the upper one. You can slap your lips, flattening the clamped tongue, and then, opening your mouth, fix the "pancake" on the lower lip.
Exercise "Hide and Seek"
You need to smile and make your tongue wide. Show it by touching the upper lip. Then slowly hide, pressing the tip to the alveoli behind the upper front teeth. Again, slowly put your tongue on your lip and remove it on the alveoli.
You can comment on the baby's actions with the words "Ku-ku", "Show yourself, tongue!", "Where are you hiding?"
Exercises for setting the sound
These exercises are also gymnastics, but you should move on to them after the previous tasks cease to cause serious difficulties and have been worked out many times.
Start with familiar exercises and then add new ones.
Exercise "Drummer Hare"
It is necessary to stretch your lips in a smile and tap your tongue on the alveoli behind the upper front teeth, repeating "dddd". In this case, you cannot move the lower jaw.
You can check the drummer's strength with a paper strip. If you bring a leaf to your lips, then it will tremble with every blow.
You need to put a wide tongue on the alveoli behind the upper front teeth and, blowing out air, pronounce "tr-rr". At first you can crackle in a whisper, then loudly, in a full voice.
Don't expect a clean growl on the first try.
This exercise plays a major role in producing a stubborn sound. It allows you to work out the tremor of the tongue, which is necessary for the correct pronunciation of "p" and "p".
Put the tip of your tongue on the familiar alveoli and say "d-d-d" as if the engine were starting. Simultaneously touch the tip of the tongue with your finger, pencil or stick and begin to quickly move your finger left and right, making the tongue tremble. If "d-d-d" turns into "dr-rr", then the engine has started.
First, the adult must help the child and support the child's cam, guide. When the baby has mastered the movements, you can invite him to "start the engine" on his own.
In more detail the exercise "Motor" is shown in the video:
The next step is to "start" with your finger, and then remove it without stopping growling.
The most difficult thing is to completely abandon the finger. You should not rush the child, but you should not drag it out. A few workouts, and growl will come out without additional help.
When setting the sound, you can try 2 more methods:
Automating the sound
Teaching the baby to pronounce the letter P is half the battle. It is necessary to bring the process to automatism. It is important that the child not only growls like a tiger, but also pronounce "p" and "p" in words, regardless of their location and combination with other sounds.
For automation, words and sentences are used, in which "p" and "pb" are often found. If the baby is forgotten and misses a difficult letter, it is necessary to stop him and ask him to repeat what was said correctly. Over time, mistakes will disappear from children's speech.
There are many ways to teach a child to speak the letter R.
Children love to imitate animals. You can play at the zoo and growl like a dog or a tiger, arrange a competition to see who makes it louder, funnier, sadder, more scary.
It is important to fix the letter P in different syllables. It is better to start with simple ones: ra, ar, ar, ro, op, or, ru, ur, ur and others. Repeating "ra-ra-ra" or "ar-ar-ar" many times is boring, so it is necessary to turn the lesson into a game: who will speak quieter (louder, funnier, scarier). Children love catchphrases. You can use ready-made ones or come up with your own.
It is useful to alternate syllables with the letter P, you can add syllables with other, similar sounding consonants.
Later, you can pick up more complex syllables: bra, tra, draw, vry, morning and others. They also need to pick up phrases.
Words and phrases
Learned syllables must be inserted into words and phrases that need to be spoken with the child.
First you need to choose simple words, for example, fish, river, hand, set, scarf, then more complex ones - drum, pencil, truck, mitten.
Boring repetition is best turned into a game. You can invite the child to look at the picture and find objects whose names contain the letter P.
In the picture, it is easy to find a mushroom, fly agaric, pipe, roof, river, shore, pier, basket, bucket, beard, old man, tree, hillock, bubble, etc..
It is necessary to make sure that the child pronounces "p" and "pb" correctly.
You can complicate the game and ask the kid not only to name objects, but also to make sentences with them.
For example, a girl blows bubbles. The boy is hiding under the fly agaric. Grandpa picked mushrooms.
You can play words without pictures. It is enough to look around. At home, on the street, in transport, the child will find many words with the letter R. You can arrange a competition to list more items.
When the baby has mastered a new game, you need to complicate it. An adult should list words with the letter P, and a child should divide them into 2 groups, with a hard "p" and a soft "pb", and repeat. You can invite the baby to stand up or raise his arms when the "r" is heard, and squat or lower his arms if the "r" sounds.
Tongue twisters are the simplest and most well-known way to automate correct articulation. Every person from childhood remembers the Greek with cancer, Sasha with drying and grass in the yard. Spelling tongue twisters is a fun and rewarding activity.
However, the child quickly gets tired of just reading and learning tongue twisters, so you need to turn the lesson into a game. You can talk with different loudness, speed, intonation, it is advisable to pick up pictures that illustrate tongue twisters.
Poems and songs
Small poems and songs with a simple rhyme, light rhythm and funny content help to consolidate the pronunciation of "p" and "pb" and give the baby pleasure.
Of the many poems and songs, it is better to choose those saturated with the letter P.
It is not necessary to look for long pieces, 4–8 is enough lines. Vivid illustrations for poems will help to cheer up and attract the child's attention.