The problem of how to become the owner of your own, fairly cheap house, has certainly appeared in front of many more than once. And often it remained unresolved. Although now the construction of frame houses has gained popularity, which allows you to get the desired result. This is one of the most affordable and easily implemented ways to become the owner of a residential building, which is what prompts the constant interest in how to build a frame house with your own hands.
About choosing a house
Choosing a design for a future residential building is a matter far from ordinary. There are many reasons both for and against frame houses, but one of their advantages cannot be denied - this is a simple technology that can be repeated with your own hands, which can significantly reduce construction costs. Moreover, the costs will depend on what type of house you decide to build. There are two different options:
- Frame-panel. In fact, this is a frame sheathed with slabs with insulation placed inside. The advantage of using ready-made panels is the minimum construction period, but the price of the finished structure will be higher, moreover, lifting equipment will be required during its installation, and the slabs themselves have a rather high cost.
- Frame-frame. The easiest and most convenient, especially for independent use, construction method. The frame of the future house is assembled on the foundation, and then it is filled with insulation and sheathed on both sides with protective material. The general structure of the walls is shown in the figure.
This approach makes it possible to significantly simplify and reduce the cost of the entire construction technology; in this case, no equipment is required and ordinary tools can be dispensed with. When designing, everything depends solely on the author's imagination. True, do not forget that building materials have limitations regarding their dimensions (boards, plywood sheets, OSB have their own dimensions), and it is desirable that this be taken into account.
Of course, initially it is necessary to draw up a project indicating all sizes, routes of communication and engineering networks. The dimensions of walls and rooms must be a multiple of the standard dimensions of building materials. The frame of the house can be built of metal or wood, but the latter is usually used. The house of this type itself is one-, maximum two-story, and even then the second floor is most often made of an attic type. The general structure of the frame structure is clear from the given figure.
About the foundation
The frame house is light enough, and a massive and powerful foundation is not required for its construction. The foundation can be of any type, examples of the various types allowed for construction are given below.
One has only to take into account that when using the slab you will have to forget about the cellar. It is believed that the following types of foundation are best suited for frame housing construction:
- shallow tape;
- prefabricated from concrete blocks.
One of the simplest and most affordable is the construction of a columnar foundation. On the plan of the house, it is necessary to note the exact location of the columns, support beams should be placed above them, as well as all supporting structural elements. In accordance with the drawing, places on the construction site are marked, in which pits are drilled with a depth of 1.5 m and a diameter of 200 mm. Asbestos-cement pipes can be used as supports.
They are dug into the ground, set at a level, and the internal volume is poured with concrete. The top plane of all supports must be leveled. As a result, you should get the following foundation:
Bottom rail and floor arrangement
After the foundation is ready, you need to lay the bottom rail on it. Most often, a 150 x 150 bar is used for this; 200 x 200 or 200 x 250 mm. But you can also use several connected boards with a thickness of 50 mm.
The harness is attached to the foundation with anchor bolts; waterproofing (roofing material) should be placed under the timber in the places of contact with the piles and treated with an antiseptic.
The beams are interconnected by a half-tree cut-in.
Although the connection can be done in a different way, for example, as shown in the figure (if the harness is made of separate boards).
The quality of the workmanship of the whole house largely depends on the correct laying of beams or boards. Therefore, it is necessary to check the angles, the diagonal dimensions of the entire structure should be the same, in extreme cases, not differ by more than 10 mm.
After the arrangement of the lower piping, the floor is laid. For these purposes, lags are attached to it. From below, they are sewn up with an unedged board, forming the so-called rough floor. Steam and waterproofing, insulation are laid on it, and on top of the log - floorboards, they are rallied and nailed to the supports. Although this can be done a little later, initially it is sufficient to lay them face down and nail only a few.
Erection of the frame
It is made from boards of 100, 150 or 200 x 50 mm, although timber can also be used. Initially, they put the corner posts, then the rest.
They are fixed at a distance of 0.6 m from each other. For additional strength, jibs and strapping are used. Horizontal supports are installed above and below the window location. All boards are nailed to the harness with nails (120 mm).
The width of the racks is determined by the characteristics of the insulation used. For insulation with a thickness of 100 mm, boards of the same width are quite enough. After all the racks are exposed and aligned, the top harness is made. It is performed in the same way as the lower one. As a result, the frame of the future house should be obtained, resembling the one shown in the photo.
Roof and ceiling
The next step will be the installation of the ceiling beams. These structural elements must have increased strength, because they have to overlap spans up to 6 m long. Therefore, in 3-4-meter spans, boards 50 mm thick and 150 mm wide, located at a distance of 0.6 meters from each other, can be used. If necessary, overlap a larger space, the boards are fastened together.
The ends of the laid beams are sawn off flush with the harness, they are nailed down with nails 120 mm long. How one of the mounting options is performed is shown in the figure, while additional use of metal corners is permissible.
Now you can start installing the rafter system. To simplify its design, the rafters are often attached to the ceiling beams. In this case, they are made larger in length than the existing frame, as shown in the photo.
The rafters themselves are made on the ground and then installed on the roof. They resemble the letter "A", the angle at which the boards join depends on the specific terrain conditions (wind and snow load, roof structure, etc.). The free ends of the rafters are installed in the cuts provided for this.
The installation of the system begins with the end elements, and then the intermediate ones are installed. Separate rafters are connected with each other by boards, thus forming a crate. Roofing material is usually laid on it, and on top of it is a roofing covering (slate, profiled sheet, metal tile, etc.).
Decoration and insulation of the house
Any material can be used for external cladding, but for rough external decoration, as a rule, OSB, DSP, board are used. This allows you to give the frame spatial rigidity. On top of the slabs, an external finish is subsequently performed, in the role of which siding, lining and other similar materials act.
Do not forget about the wind and waterproofing of the walls. Usually a special film is used for this. It is fastened in such a way (with the help of a counter-lattice) that there is a gap between the cladding and the outer wall. Insulation is laid from the inside of the house, mineral wool is most often used in this capacity. Additionally, to ensure the removal of moisture vapor to the outside, a vapor barrier is installed over the insulation.
The ceiling of the house is finished in the same way. From the inside, the house is sheathed with any material - clapboard, drywall, etc., as your imagination tells you. Additional information about the structure of a frame house and its construction is presented in the video:
With all the variety of different construction methods, you now know how to build a frame house, what is needed for this, and if necessary, you can make the right decision.
There are several technologies available to build your own home. However, the most affordable is the construction of a frame house. Moreover, its advantages include not only a fairly low cost, but also the ability to do the job yourself using conventional tools. Thanks to this, frame house building is gaining more and more adherents. The correct application of the technology makes it possible to obtain housing that, under any external conditions, provides a comfortable living environment..