Rye and wheat are some of the most popular crops cultivated by humans. They are indispensable plants in the provision of food for people and domestic animals in a number of countries.
Rye is a genus of cereals. It can be annual, and some species are perennial. The stem has a height of 60 cm to 2 meters. In our latitudes, it blooms in May, June. Today there are 13 types of rye. Of these, 12 are wild and 1 is cultured. The cultivated plant is presented in two forms - winter and spring. In our country, farmers prefer the winter form.
The Mediterranean, Asia and South Africa are considered the native land of rye. The cultivated species originated from those cereal weeds that grew in the foothills of the Caucasus and on the territory of Asia Minor.
The structure of rye is typical for cereals. The root is fibrous, easily penetrating to a depth of 2 meters. Therefore, the plant is indispensable for growing on marginal sandy soils. The stem is hollow, 5-6 internodes are clearly visible on it. The leaves are flat, tightly covering the stem. They are covered with hairs, which allows them to resist lack of moisture. The inflorescence is a dense two-row spike, which, after wind pollination, produces a fruit - a caryopsis.
Rye is less demanding than other cereals for the quality of the soil. With a developed root, it "catches" phosphorus and potassium from depths inaccessible to wheat. It tolerates acidic, podzolic soils well. Rye is frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to minus 21 ° C.
The composition of a grain of rye includes: proteins and fiber, carbohydrates and minerals, as well as vitamins B, PP, E. Rye bread is a valuable dietary product, a source of B vitamins. Rye bran and green shoots of the plant willingly eat Pets.
Wheat is a genus of cereal plants. There are biennial and annual plants. Plant height is from 30 to 150 cm. After numerous discussions, the vicinity of the city of Diyarbakir in Asia Minor was recognized as the place of origin of wheat. The plant is considered the first cultivated cereal.
The stem of wheat is hollow, erect. The root system is fibrous. Small leaves cover the stem. They are hairy or bare. A wheat inflorescence is a complex spike, 3 to 15 cm long. On its stem there are 3 to 5 flower spikelets, each of which is packed in two spikelet scales. Pollination takes place with the help of the wind. The fruit of the plant is a single-seed caryopsis. It contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, starch, disaccharides and dietary fiber.
Wheat can be soft and hard, winter and spring. The plant is the most important food crop, one of the “three breads of mankind”. Bread is baked from it, pasta, cereals are made, fed to animals, alcohol, immunomodulators and anti-aging agents are made from grain germs.
- Wheat was cultivated earlier than rye.
- Wheat has the largest number of species and varieties among all cereals. Some local varieties have not yet been studied and classified. Rye does not have such a “species fireworks”.
- Both plants have different grain chemistry and appearance.
- Rye is less demanding on soil quality and temperature conditions than wheat.
- Wheat has many more uses than rye.