Wheel tires come in two popular varieties - radial and bias. What is the specificity of both?
What is a radial tire?
The radial tire contains a single-layer cord, which is pulled from one side part to the other so that the threads present in its structure do not overlap with each other. They are located at an angle of 90 degrees. The upper layer of the carcass of this tire is covered with a special belt made of durable rigid cord (usually steel, sometimes sewn from fabric).
Most commonly, radial tires are classified as tubeless. A radial tire is usually equipped with 1 bead ring.
The fact that the tire is radial is indicated by the letter R on its side. Sometimes the words Radial or Belted are present next to it.
The main advantages of radial tires:
- high resistance to wear;
- long service life;
- reduced rolling resistance (due to this, it becomes possible to use fuel more economically);
- ensuring good handling and stability of the vehicle;
- providing good grip on asphalt (this is due to the large contact area of the tire surface with the road);
- ability to withstand high loads;
- high thermal conductivity of the frame.
At the same time, these types of tires have disadvantages. These include:
- vulnerability of the lateral part to mechanical stress;
- relatively high price.
Radial tires are considered the most common in the automotive industry. In turn, on the wheels of special technical means, as well as, of course, on many cars, you can often find diagonal tires. Let's study their features.
What is a bias tire?
The tires in question are equipped with a carcass, in which several layers of cord (usually an even number) may be present. They are arranged so that the threads present in the adjacent layers intersect in the middle of the tread. They are placed at an angle of 35-40 degrees. These threads are made mainly from synthetic fabrics - for example, nylon, nylon.
Most often bias tires are classified as chambered tires. They are equipped, as a rule, with two bead rings.
The main advantages of bias tires are actually found based on the nature of the disadvantages of radials. So, bias tires:
- are better protected from the sides;
- are cheaper.
Bias tires also have disadvantages. They are quite easily identified, in turn, also based on the advantages of radial rubber kits. Thus, bias tires:
- are less resistant to wear;
- have a shorter lifespan;
- have higher rolling resistance;
- do not predetermine the improvement of vehicle handling, increased traction with the asphalt;
- are heavier;
- are able to withstand less stress;
- have a framework with lower thermal conductivity.
As we noted above, bias tires are most often installed on special types of equipment - tractors, excavators.
Thus, there is more than one difference between a radial tire and a bias tire. The difference between them can be traced:
- in the number of layers of the cord, in the relative position of its threads and materials of their manufacture;
- in the number of bead rings;
- in wear resistance;
- in service life;
- in rolling resistance;
- in ensuring the controllability of the car, enhancing the adhesion of the wheels to the asphalt;
- in weight;
- in the ability to withstand a load;
- in the thermal conductivity of the frame;
- in camera equipment;
- in scope.
Obviously, there are quite a lot of mentioned criteria. Therefore, in order to more clearly display what is the difference between a radial and a bias tire, let us fix the conclusions in the table.
|Usually has a single ply cord
|Has a multi ply cord
|Cords do not intersect
|Cords intersect at 35-40 degrees
|Cords are most often made from steel
|Cords are most often made from synthetic fabrics
|They have 1 bead ring
|Have 2 bead rings
|More resistant to wear
|Less wear resistant
|Shorter service life
|Low rolling resistance
|Higher rolling resistance
|Provide higher controllability of the machine, increase the contact of the wheels with the road
|Do not provide increased controllability of the machine and do not predetermine increased contact of the wheels with the road
|Able to withstand a higher load
|Able to withstand a lower load
|Have a frame with a high thermal conductivity
|Have a frame with a lower thermal conductivity
|Installed mainly on cars
|Installed mainly on tractors, excavators and other types of special equipment