The basis for comparing philosophy, mythology and religion is that they are special forms of social consciousness, reflecting the spiritual, cultural and worldview aspects in understanding the human essence, the nature of things and the laws of being. These aspects are manifested in different ways in religious and philosophical teachings, the roots of which go back to Indo-European and Eastern mythology.
Mythology - a special figurative-epic form of comprehending the world that arises in the early period of the development of social relations among most nationalities and ethnic groups. In ancient myths, the picture of the universe combines reality and fiction, knowledge and beliefs, natural and supernatural, thought and emotional perception of reality.
Religion is an ordered system of views and beliefs based on belief in a higher mind and divine spiritual principle, to which human life and everything that happens on earth is subordinated. Religious ideas are formed at a certain stage in the formation of social structures and are always correlated with their hierarchical structure.
Philosophy is the highest form of social consciousness, manifested in intellectual and spiritual activities aimed at posing and analyzing worldview questions. Philosophical teachings, schools and trends are formed on the basis of practical experience and deep understanding of the laws of development of the material and non-material world.
The mythology reflects the direct, based on empirical experience, collective thinking aimed at determining the place of man in the natural world. In myths, he is assigned the modest role of executor of the will of the gods, personifying the mighty forces of heaven, earth and the water element.
The poetics of myths is based on allegorical images and metaphors that have multiple meanings. Their epic form presents the world in a generalized form, as a given that does not require explanation.
The naivety of mystical ideas and the impossibility of highlighting the subject of knowledge in them does not diminish the importance of mythology as a powerful layer of spiritual culture. It was on its basis that philosophical thinking developed, in the center of which were the man, his feelings, language, morality, creativity, the laws of historical processes and natural phenomena.
The works of the ancient Greek philosophers Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle became the beginning of the development of philosophy as a science. Its main directions are defined as ontology - the doctrine of being, epistemology - the doctrine of cognition, logic - the doctrine of the forms of thinking and aesthetics - the doctrine of the harmonious structure of the world.
Religion differs from philosophy in that it explains being not in terms of its cognizability and self-development, but as a manifestation of the will of a higher deity, incomprehensible to human consciousness. If philosophy is characterized by logical analysis, generalizations, reasoned evidence and conclusions, religion is based on unconditional faith. Religious consciousness manifests itself at the ideological level - in theology, ethics, theosophical doctrines of the church, and at the psychological level - as a stereotype of the behavior and emotional states of believers. A socially significant form of religion is a cult, in which a system of ethical ideals and ritual actions is formed and established.
- Mythology recreates a figurative picture of the world. In religion, ideas about the universe are formed on the basis of faith. The content of philosophy is scientifically grounded worldview concepts.
- The focus of mythology and religion is on the gods. Philosophy focuses on the person.
- In mythology and religion, the human capacity for knowledge is ignored. The essence of philosophy is in the knowledge and explanation of life in all its manifestations.
- Mythology is a collective folk art. Religion is a system of views and a form of control over human consciousness. Philosophy is a humanitarian science.