The participle and participle are special forms of the verb that have different grammatical features and perform different linguistic functions. Understanding the differences between these verb forms allows you to correctly use them in syntactic constructions and accurately express a thought in oral and written speech.
The verb is an unchangeable form of the verb that denotes an additional action or state and is related to the main verb in meaning:
Smiling, the girl invited guests to House. (invited me to do what? - smiling)
The dog, growling, leaned out of the kennel. (leaned out what to do? - snarling)
The signs of the verb in the gerunds are form, transitivity and reflexivity.
Imperfect participles answer the questionwhat to do?
The perfect participles answer the questionwhat having done?
The participles preserve the transitivity of the verbs from which they are formed:
read a book - reading a book (transitive);
drizzle - drizzle (intransitive).
In the sentence, the gerunds act as circumstances. The participle is a verb form denoting a sign of an object, phenomenon or state by action:
readbook- book whichread;
storm played out- a storm thatplayed out;
alarmingsilence- silence thatalarms;
the property under studyis a property that is studied .
The participle combines the grammatical features of a verb and an adjective.
As a verb form, it has the categories of tense, type, transitivity of action.
Present participles are formed from a non-derivative or derivative stem of the infinitive using the suffixes–usch- (-usch-); -asch- (-sch-); -em-, -om-:
Past participles indicate a completed action. They are formed from the stem of the past tense verbs using the suffixes–enn-, -ann-(-yann-), -vsh-, -sh-, -t-:
fall asleepl -fall asleepvshth
The sacrament has no future tense.
According to the semantic content and nature of the expressed sign, participles can be valid or passive.
Real participles denote a sign of an action performed by the object of speech itself:
Passive participles denote a sign of action directed at the object of speech:
the topic studied(topicwas studied);
In the Russian language, a relatively small group of participles is distinguished, which correspond in meaning to reflexive verbs:
|reflexive verbs||return participles|
|intransitive verb||intransitive participle|
The perfect or imperfect form of the participle also coincides with the form of the verb from which it is formed:
what to do?
what to do?
The participles, as adjectives, can change in cases and numbers. The participles have the same system of endings with adjectives, which change during declension according to the general rules for these parts of speech:
enchantedchest (Im.; unit h.);
with an enchanted door(Art. P.; F.; Sing. H.);
enchantedtreasures (Gender n; plural).
In a sentence, a participle, like an adjective, acts as an agreed definition.
- The participle denotes an additional action and refers to the verb. The participle indicates a sign of an object by action and refers to a noun or substantive parts of speech.
- The participles and participles answer different questions.
- The verbal participle does not change. The participle can be changed like an adjective.
- The syntactic role of the participle is a circumstance. The participle acts as a definition.