Difference between military and civilian.

The status of military and civilians differs significantly. How exactly can this be expressed?

What is the specificity of the military status?

In the Russian Federation , a military man is a person who performs his duties related to service in the armed forces, solving problems in the field of ensuring the country's security.

Citizens of Russia can acquire military status:

  • as a result of being drafted into the army;
  • due to the signing of a contract with the military.

The Russian military serve in specialized formations - military units, at the infrastructure of the army, in various institutions, at military bases, on alert (within the framework of ensuring the functioning of air defense facilities, the fleet, the air force).

The most important distinguishing characteristic of a military man is the presence of a rank. It is assigned based on the level of experience, qualifications and merit of the soldier. As a rule, the presence of a person of a higher rank implies that he can give orders that are mandatory for execution, unless otherwise established in regulatory enactments, to people with a lower rank.

Russian military personnel have a number of restrictions on the implementation of certain types of activities. For example, entrepreneurial and other, which is paid. At the same time, the Russian military has a fairly large number of social preferences, such as, for example, the possibility of obtaining housing, admission to universities on a preferential basis.

The military must be prepared to participate in hostilities. If they enter an armed conflict, they receive a special status - a combatant. They are beginning to be subject to the Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War, who should be considered by the subject who captured them mainly as persons who carry out the order and therefore deserve human treatment and ensure that they are in acceptable conditions.

What is the specificity of the status of a citizen?

A person who has the status of a citizen of the state has the basic rights and obligations guaranteed by the national constitution and other laws of the country. In modern developed countries, the list of citizen's rights is quite large - they are associated, in particular, with freedom of speech, movement, choice of occupation, travel abroad, receiving a certain amount of public services and social guarantees.

An important place in the spectrum of the rights of citizens of modern states is occupied by political rights - to elect candidates to government bodies and to be elected, organize associations in defense of the interests of certain social groups, interact with existing government bodies.

Responsibilities of citizens in modern developed countries are most often associated:

  • with the need to comply with the norms of laws adopted by the state;
  • with the need to pay taxes;
  • with the need to promote the realization of the interests of their state, the inadmissibility of high treason, the initiation of political changes in a revolutionary way;
  • with participation in the defense of their state.

In many countries of the world, including the Russian Federation, the duties of citizens - male (in Russia) or both sexes - include service in the army, acquiring the status of a soldier.


The main difference between the military and civilians is that the former are endowed with special rights and duties, the essence of which is predetermined by their service in the armed forces of the state.

The military has ranks that make it possible to give orders to soldiers and officers of lower rank and at the same time oblige to obey the military with a higher rank. There is no such subordination in the civilian environment.

A soldier must be ready to participate in hostilities - including abroad. In general, a citizen is a subject of peaceful life and, in the absence of general mobilization of the population, even with the participation of the country in an armed conflict, does not enter into hostilities.

Members of the armed forces usually have a greater amount of social benefits provided by the state. At the same time, they have restrictions that are not typical for civilians, in particular, those related to the implementation of entrepreneurial activities.

The way of life of the military and civilians can differ significantly. The former spend a significant part of their time on combat training, mastering various types of equipment and weapons, and studying the tactics of warfare. Civilians can engage in completely different activities.

Having determined what is the difference between the military and civilians, we will fix the conclusions in the table.


Military Civil
They serve in the armed forces, study military affairsCan choose an activity that has nothing to do with the army
Have ranksHave no ranks, similar to military
Can be sent on a combat missionIf there is no mobilization in the country, lead a peaceful life
Have a number special social benefits - for example, for the purchase of housing, for admission to universitiesAs a rule, they cannot enjoy similar benefits