Shake a hand, raise a hand, from hand to hand... One word, but each time the emphasis is on different parts: palms, hands, hand as an upper limb from forearm to fingertips. However, we rarely use such definitions, by default understanding what exactly is meant. In English, such "liberties" are unacceptable, and different words are used for different elements of the hand: hand and arm.
Both of these words are nouns that can be translated into our language in one word. But if you mean a part of our upper limb from the fingertips to the wrist, then it is necessary to use the word hand (in Russian the synonym will be the word brush). If the part is from the wrist to the forearm, then the word arm will be appropriate.
Thus, in Russian:
- There are different names for different parts of the arm and the entire upper limb;
- In most cases, one word (hand) can be used to refer to any of these parts.
- The word for the hand as a whole is not used, but the limb is divided into two parts, separated by the wrist: from the fingers - hand, to the forearm - arm.
- It is impossible to replace these words with one.
Let us explain what has been said with one example: shake hands. In Russian, we say that people shook hands, realizing that we are talking about brushes. An interlinear translation from English would require the use of the word "brush".
- Hand - part of the hand from the fingertips to the wrist;
- Arm - part of the arm from the wrist to the forearm.