The globe and the map are the main symbols of geographical science, reminding us of tempting journeys to distant lands. Despite the fact that both of these objects depict the earth's surface, there are a number of fundamental differences between them.
Globus - this is a three-dimensional model of the Earth.
Map is a generalized image of the earth's surface, made on a plane, in scale, using conventional symbols.
The globe is the most accurate model of the Earth. It appeared in 1942 thanks to the German Martin Beheim, who worked at the Geographical Institute. The first model was missing half of the continents and islands that exist on Earth, but it was she who became the forerunner of the era of the great geographical discoveries. The modern globe depicts all continents and oceans on the planet. Traditionally, globes are produced in two types - general geographic and political.
The map appeared in the 3rd century BC. A certain Eratosthenes, later called "the father of geography", depicted parts of Europe, Asia and Africa known at that time, and also drew the rudiments of a degree grid on his map.
It is the smooth surface of the globe that emphasizes: the relative heights on Earth are much inferior to its horizontal distances. A feature of this item is that the degree grid, the shape of the parallel meridians, the configuration of geographic objects, their linear and territorial dimensions correspond to the actual ones, that is, they are depicted without distortion. Naturally, the scale is also taken into account.
Due to the fact that the globe complies with the principles of equal area, equidistant and conformal, it is an irreplaceable device in astronautics, sea and air navigation.
Since the map represents the earth's surface depicted on a plane, all objects, their configuration, areas and distances on it lend themselves to distortion. Therefore, depending on the purpose of the map, a projection is selected - cylindrical, conical or azimuthal, which minimizes distortion as much as possible.
All objects on the map are depicted using conventional symbols: iconic, linear, motion lines, isolines, by the method of areas and layer-by-layer coloring, which makes it easier mapping and improves the degree of perception of information by its consumer.
Maps are divided according to the level of reduction of the earth's surface - large-, medium- and small-scale, by purpose, by content and by the area of the illuminated territory.
Maps are easier to use than globes.
- The map appeared earlier, the globe - eighteen centuries later.
- The entire Earth is depicted on the globe, and the map can show the viewers both the entire planet and individual continents, countries, parts of the world, regions, cities, streets.
- Geographic objects, their areas and distances between them are transmitted on the globe without distortion, in contrast to the image on the map.
- The globe is less user-friendly than the map.