In search of a better life, some people leave Russia, while others, on the contrary, arrive in it. Such a movement is called migration processes, which have a significant impact on the life of the entire society. What is the difference between the basic concepts and why is it so important to pay attention to this issue?
Emigration - it is the resettlement of persons to a foreign country for political, economic, social reasons. It can be voluntary, or coercive, provoked by the behavior of the authorities. Resettlement from Russia to the United States is emigration caused by the difference in living standards.
Immigration is the entry into the state due to certain circumstances, which can only be voluntary. There are many motives for changing the host country - from looking for a better life to saving your own life and health.
So, at first glance, the differences between the definitions are of a purely technical nature and, in fact, represent two sides of the same process. Emigrants leave the country, and immigrants move into it. It is very difficult to control these processes, since they are not always in the legal field (illegal migrants).
At the same time, emigration can be forced: certain persons will simply be “asked” or obliged to leave the state and made persona non grata. But to force a person to forcibly move into the country is impossible, since such mechanisms do not exist. All developed countries introduce quotas on immigration, setting certain limits, and sometimes even prohibiting it. Almost all countries do not prohibit emigration (except for totalitarian regimes), quotas for it, as a rule, are not introduced.
- Direction. Emigration is directed outside the state, immigration is directed inside it.
- Right of residence. An emigrant acquires a residence permit or acquires citizenship in a new country, an immigrant, on the contrary, loses contact with his homeland in connection with the establishment of a connection with the new land.
- Consent of the person. Emigration can be compulsory, while immigration is only voluntary.
- Quotas. Emigration is almost impossible to control, no limits are set on the number of persons leaving their homeland. The number of immigrants is limited by most states, special quotas are introduced.