The adverb and participle have different functions in the language. Their morphological characteristics are also different. To understand the concepts, let's find out how the adverb differs from the participle.
Adverbs are a category of words that have the meaning of a feature. Most often, these words refer to verbs, denoting in such cases a sign of action (moverapidly). If an adverb adjoins another adverb, adjective or participle, then it expresses a sign of a sign (beautifullydecorated hall). Adverbs are combined with only a few nouns, denoting in such combinations a sign of an object (readingaloud). Some adverbs do not directly name a sign. These special words are called pronominal adverbs. Examples of them:here, somewhere, why, never.
The participle also expresses a sign. But this, unlike adverbs, is exclusively a sign of the subject. The participle is not recognized as an independent part of speech. And although some linguists try to dispute this point of view, most of them assign the participle the status of a verb form by the way it is formed from its root. Words of this group also have the properties of an adjective, endowed with its ending. Collocation with participle:a blazingbonfire.
Let's list the main points that help to identify the difference between an adverb and a participle:
- Education. Adverbs are produced from many parts of speech: from nouns (in the morning), adjectives (fun), verbs (silently) and others. The participles are formed only from verbs (growing- from the verbto grow).
- The question asked. A word can be attributed to adverbs if it answers the questions: where? (close) when? (yesterday) where? (forward), from where? (from afar) why? (involuntarily), why? (in spite of) how? (in a friendly way). The following questions correspond to the sacrament: which one? (baked) what is the doer? (painting) what did he do? (linked).
- Property to change. The vast majority of adverbs do not change. That is, they are not characterized by such categories as declension and conjugation, do not have gender and number. The exception is words derived from quality adjectives. In such adverbs, degrees of comparison (deeply deeper) and forms of assessment (quietly) are formed. The participle is consistent with other words and changes. Having a close connection with the verb and the adjective, it takes over the signs of these parts of speech. The participle, for example, defines the gender (singinggirl - fem.), The number (twinklingstars - plural), the type (performed bytask - Sov.v.). Unlike adverbs, participles can be short.
- Dependent words. Adverbs do not have them. They only adjoin other words. The participles are used both without dependent words, and with them. In the latter variant, a participial turnover is formed (forestwrapped in snow).
- Syntactic role. An adverb in a sentence is predominantly a circumstance. Less often it acts as other members. In many cases, the meaning of the sentence is not violated if the adverb is removed from it.
The participle, singular or in a turnover structure, is in most cases a definition. Together with other words, it constitutes the main meaning of the sentence, and it cannot be removed without prejudice to the entire structure.
It should be noted that adverbs and short participles are sometimes very similar. For example, in this case:The brothers looked at each other in dismay. The village was alarmed by loud noises.Knowledge of the difference between an adverb and a participle used in short form will help to accurately navigate in such a situation.
Here again, asking the question will help. In this example, the word from the first sentence “anxiously” answers the question “how?”. It's a question of adverb. By the way from the second sentence “alarmed”, the question “what is it?” Can be posed. This is a question of the short participle.
Also, to recognize a part of speech, you should try to replace the word in doubt with a verb. In the first case, this will not work, which indicates that the word "alarmed" belongs to adverbs. In the second sentence, such a substitution is permissible:The village was alarmed by loud noises.This is characteristic of the short participle..